The occurrence of diseases of the cardiovascular system is often difficult to recognize, since their course is secretive and slow. However, undetected symptoms of heart disease can lead to a situation where it will be too late to do anything - a heart attack occurs, which in the best case will leave an irreversible pathology in the body, and in the worst, a person can expect a fatal instant outcome.
How to determine heart disease, what are the main symptoms that indicate their development - the answer to these questions lies in early diagnosis, which allows you to recognize the "first bells" of the disease in time and prevent it.
Many symptoms of diseases of the heart organ and vascular system that are interconnected manifest themselves under the influence of pathological processes. They, as a rule, are reflected in the patient’s abnormal lifestyle (this does not apply to congenital heart pathologies):
- smoking, alcohol, drugs;
- stress, suppression of emotions, depression;
- large physical exertion, in the absence of proper rest;
- malnutrition, obesity, diabetes;
- sedentary work;
- viruses and bacteria, including due to lack of hygienic conditions.
Due to these, as well as other reasons, there is a “blockage” of blood vessels - thrombosis occurs. In places where the vessels are contracting, the blood stops circulating normally.
Types of heart disease and their symptoms
Heart failure... This pathology is most often classified not as an independent disease, but as a condition in various heart diseases - ischemia, arterial hypertension, myocarditis and others. Heart fatigue - this is the second name that can fully characterize this ailment. The muscle of the heart organ is so exhausted that it cannot function at full strength.
Symptoms of heart failure can have dual manifestations - an acute attack and a latent chronic course. Signs that indicate heart failure:
- "Cyanosis" of the skin;
- occasional chills;
- lack of oxygen and as a result the appearance of shortness of breath;
- dizziness, possible fainting.
If the initial stage of heart failure does not affect the physical condition of a person, then the fourth degree of this ailment introduces a certain discomfort in the patient’s usual life - physical activity will be an overwhelming task for him.
Coronary heart disease - when the accumulation of atherosclerotic plaques occurs in the arteries, circulatory disorders are inevitable. Ischemic heart disease occurs - angina pectoris or myocardial infarction.
The most common cardiac pathologies are arrhythmia and angina pectoris. Both pathology data are interconnected, since the occurrence of angina pectoris often has the consequence of arrhythmic disorders of the heart organ. However, signs of angina pectoris and cardiac arrhythmias have distinctive symptoms.
Arrhythmia, which is classified by interruptions in the rhythm of the heartbeat. The formation of arrhythmia is often accompanied by altered metabolic processes in the cells of the heart or in the body as a whole. For example, lack or excess of magnesium, potassium, or sodium. So, bradycardia or ventricular tachycardia can occur if there is an excess of potassium ions in the body, while extrasystole is its lack.
These processes worsen conduction in the tissues of the myocardium, pain occurs in the sternum (heart region), and in some cases, with a high concentration of potassium ions, a sudden fatal outcome can occur.
Often, psychoemotional disturbances, depressive conditions, physical overwork, lack of sleep, stress lead to arrhythmias. Symptoms of arrhythmia are also classified according to the type of coronary disease:
- with extrasystole, intermittent work of the heart, dizziness, shortness of breath, pain in part of the heart will be observed;
- with tachycardia (often paroxysmal) and arrhythmias (sinus), weakness, lack of air, fainting state, increased sweating, rapid heartbeat, dizziness are diagnosed.
The medical term "arrhythmia" combines a group of coronary diseases, which are characterized by an abnormal heart rhythm. Arrhythmia is not an independent disease, but rather a condition that precedes other diseases of the heart organ. Taking medications helps to restore the rhythm of the heart, however, a comprehensive examination is needed to find the reasons that provoked this condition, since in each particular case the treatment will be different.
During normal heart function, the muscle of the main vital organ contracts in one minute from 60 to 90 times. Whereas with pathological changes, the range of the heartbeat decreases or becomes irregular. Some types of arrhythmias have no effect on human health, while others can have a serious effect on the bloodstream of the vascular system. In any case, if you detect symptoms in violation of the heartbeat, you should not postpone the visit to the cardiologist.
Among the multiple types of arrhythmias, the most frequent are distinguished:
- bradycardia - slow heart muscle contractions;
- extrasystole - premature contractions of the rhythm of the heartbeat, in other words for some time the cardiac organ remains in a state that cannot cause a systolic impulse;
- atrial fibrillation - changes in the usual heartbeat due to disturbances in the activity of the atria.
With arrhythmic disorders, changes in the rhythm of the heart organ are detected, the frequency and sequence of its contractions (strokes) change. The causes of this pathological condition are quite diverse:
- pathology of the vascular system;
- disorders in the thyroid gland;
- high blood pressure;
- damage to the cranial part;
- restructuring of the body during menopause;
- kidney disease;
- addiction to alcohol and smoking;
- frequent stresses, physical strain and nervous exhaustion;
- poisoning and, as a result, intoxication of the body;
- long-term use of medications.
With angina pectoris (popularly referred to as "angina pectoris"), vasoconstriction occurs in different places with different strengths. From here, sharp squeezing pains in the sternum appear. Especially with excessive physical activity, in stressful situations.
Myocardial infarction, on the contrary, is a violation or even, rather, necrosis of a certain muscle area of the heart. This condition occurs when the patient ignores the preventive and therapeutic measures of a coronary disease. At the same time, painful sensations occur in a sharp form and can last several days, in contrast to angina pectoris. With a heart attack, there is a huge risk of rupture of the heart organ, the occurrence of aneurysm.
In turn, with angina pectoris, heart attacks occur, which develop against the background of arrhythmia. Oxygen enters the heart region intermittently, and its lack becomes noticeable. Accordingly, that part of the cardiac organ that has not received oxygen weakens, is damaged, and tissue necrosis processes begin in it.
Symptoms of arrhythmia may not manifest themselves for a long time, however, with the development of the investigative cause, peculiar attacks occur, which often have signs of general malaise:
- temperature increase;
- soreness in the heart.
Such symptoms do not disappear without a trace if the attention of doctors is not paid to them in time. Often the occurrence of arrhythmias occurs against the background of chronic fatigue, when the whole body weakens. During this period, the following symptoms of arrhythmia are distinguished:
- general weakness;
- bouts of fever;
- stiffness of the upper limbs;
- not passing feeling of nausea.
Against the background of all the above symptoms, a person often has a feeling of panic about a condition that does not go away. Under the influence of panic attacks, the signs of arrhythmia are only exacerbated, so it is important to maintain peace of mind. It is also not recommended to consume alcohol (complications may occur).
There are frequent cases when arrhythmia completely disappears without certain symptoms and is detected during a routine examination with a doctor. Such cases are most characteristic of young people. This is due to constant rush and rhythm of life. Often, such arrhythmia is easily eliminated and does not harm human health.
Types of arrhythmias in children and the causes of their occurrence
The main symptoms of childhood arrhythmias, which become the reason for an immediate visit to the pediatrician and cardiologist:
- sudden attacks of shortness of breath;
- baseless psychoemotional disorders and hysteria;
- refusal of food;
- sensations of pressure in the chest area;
- strong palpitations;
- general weakness, nausea, vomiting;
- pallor and dizziness;
- difficulties with performing physical activities by age.
Arrhythmia is most often formed in schoolchildren, due to increased physical activity. During the diagnosis of this condition by conducting an ECG, increased and prolonged heart rate variability is recorded:
- Sinus bradycardia... This concept is characterized by a slowdown in the rhythm of the heart organ in children by 20, less often 30 beats per minute. The norms for each age are specified by the doctor. If the indicators have crossed the threshold of 60-40 beats per minute, then this situation will end in a fainting state. In addition, bradycardia carries the danger of sudden cardiac arrest.
- Paroxysmal tachycardia... Paroxysmal periods of strong heartbeat. In this case, overestimated rates of heart rate per minute are recorded - 160-180 beats, which significantly exceeds the norm. This condition may be the result of impaired blood circulation, as well as psycho-emotional aspects. Paroxysms are very dangerous for a child's heart, since during an attack the organ does not have the opportunity to "rest" - sometimes a rapid heartbeat can last several hours. In this case, urgent help and treatment is required. If the treatment of tachyarrhythmias has failed and the attacks recur, then surgery may be recommended.
- Atrial fibrillation... The complexity of this type of arrhythmia in a child lies in the chaotic pulsation of the atria. Atrial fibrillation is very rare in children. Violation of the correct atrial fibrillation is preceded by severe heart disease, myocarditis, rheumatism. This condition can have a fast or slow heartbeat.
- Weak sinus node... In this case, we are talking about a severe violation of the rhythm of the heart, both rapid and slow. Most often, this condition is recorded after surgery on the heart.
- Extrasystole classified as an extraordinary contraction of the heart organ. Extrasystoles have two "outputs" for the impulse - ventricular and supraventricular and they alternate with rhythm. When their normal alternation order is violated, extrasystole occurs. It is difficult to diagnose it, since in addition to weak painful feelings in the heart, it does not have other symptoms. There is an extrasystole often:
- with increased physical exertion;
- during the period of puberty (hormonal changes) in adolescents;
- with diseases of the endocrine system, congenital malformations, rheumatism;
- as a result of smoking;
- in the presence of infection in the body.
As a rule, extrasystole is not dangerous, since it does not cause hemodynamics of the heart, but it cannot be delayed with its treatment. To relieve seizures, potassium preparations are prescribed: Asparkam, Panangin, Potassium Orotate. The dosage according to age and other indicators is prescribed by the doctor. If initial therapy has not yielded results, then β-blockers - cordarone or anaprilin (inderal) may be applied. Often, the dosage is determined based on the child's body weight - one kilogram requires 1-2 mg of the drug. The aforementioned drugs have severe contraindications if the child has a circulatory failure. Then, substitutes are prescribed as drug therapy - isonicamide, novocainomide.
Symptoms by type of heart disease
The signs of arrhythmia indicated above are general in nature, but in each individual case the clinical picture will be individual. So, various factors, diseases and their course can precede the occurrence of this pathology, and the signs of arrhythmia in women are more pronounced, especially against the background of changes in the hormonal nature, during menopause.
- Bradycardia is characterized by a slow heartbeat, so the patient will feel drowsiness and lethargy. Physical activity will be weakened, and the general condition unstable.
- Unlike bradycardia, tachycardia is manifested by rapid rhythmic heartbeat. During periods of attacks, a person is very excitable, his activity increases, but the condition is accompanied by chest pain and shortness of breath. There is a restless feeling.
- Symptoms of nausea and dizziness are characteristic of extrasystole and atrial fibrillation. Sudden pressure drops occur, leading to a fainting state. Pain syndrome intensifies in the region of the heart. Irregular heartbeat with these types of arrhythmias often affects men and the elderly.
In any case, such a pathology is dangerous for both the elderly and young people, because fibrillation of the ventricles of the heart organ can become a complication. The most important hallmark of angina is pain. It is sharp and burning, radiates to the abdomen, to the lower jaw, and also to the left upper limb (especially the shoulder joint). For men, profuse sweating is characteristic, the feeling of nausea can reach vomiting, breathing slows down to an interval of 2 seconds between breaths. The most common symptoms of angina pectoris are:
- soreness on inhalation-exhalation;
- burning in the sternum, as well as a feeling of constriction;
- lack of oxygen and difficulty breathing;
- stiffness in movements of the left limb.
With angina pectoris, which occurs against the background of exacerbation of chronic diseases of the lungs, gastrointestinal tract and gall bladder, symptoms that are not typical for this cardiac pathology may also appear:
- irregular heartbeat rhythm;
- indigestion (colitis, nausea, heartburn);
- the spread of pain in the back, lower jaw;
Like arrhythmias, signs of angina are classified according to certain symptoms, most often according to the duration of attacks of this condition:
- Stressful form - appears after emotional shake-up, stress, and also under the influence of alcoholic intoxication or physical stress. Such an attack does not last long, but arises sharply and passes with sharp pains in the chest.
- Unstable angina pectoris - such attacks often begin when a person is at rest. The arising burning pain does not allow the patient to take a deep breath, which leads to panic. By duration, such an attack lasts for 10 minutes. This phenomenon cannot be ignored, because this condition leads to the development of myocardial infarction.
- Vasospastic form - in this case, a spasm of the coronary arteries occurs, and what happens during a period of complete rest or sleep. An attack can last up to 5 minutes.
Any of the signs of arrhythmia or angina pectoris should be a reason for visiting a specialist in the field of cardiology in order to identify in time the cause of this condition and prevent the development of heart disease.
Often heart disease is a congenital pathology, although sometimes its acquired forms are also found. Congenital pathology is formed at the stage of intrauterine development and is solved mainly through surgical intervention.
The acquired form of this pathology appears due to damage to the valves of the heart organ. This is affected by diseases such as coronary heart disease, myocarditis, atherosclerosis, and rheumatism. And in this case, an operation is indispensable.
Inflammatory and infectious processes in the body or rheumatism can cause a "cold" of the heart. Complications on the body give such ailments as tonsillitis or flu. Temperature differences and its high indices have a very detrimental effect on the work of the heart.
Stroke - This is a frequent consequence of pathological circulatory disorders in the vessels that supply the brain. Oxygen does not enter the brain and it dies. Very often, this condition develops at lightning speed and if the patient remains alive, then nothing goes without complications. Coordination of movement is disturbed, memory lapses occur, in some cases dementia or urinary incontinence occurs.
Rheumatic heart disease. This disease is more susceptible to children and adolescents, since it is formed as a result of the penetration of streptococcal infection into the body. It is very detrimental (toxic) to the heart organ. Signs of rheumatic heart disease are soreness in the chest (region of the heart), shortness of breath, increased heartbeat.
There are five serious signs, the appearance of which should prompt a person to visit a doctor:
- Painful sensations behind the sternum (most often occur with physical activity and pass at rest);
- Frequent increase in blood pressure (more than 140 / 90 mm);
- Disturbed rhythm of the heartbeat;
- Shortness of breath while walking and lying down (with shortness of breath and coughing);
- Swelling, especially lower limbs.
There is also an unwritten rule - after 35 years, and especially for men, to be examined by a cardiologist at least once a year. This will help in the early stages to recognize the onset of heart disease and prevent their further course.
Diagnostics. First of all, when examined by a cardiologist, the patient is assigned an electrocardiogram, as well as:
- treadmill test (studies performed during physical exertion);
- Holter monitoring (ECG recording, which is carried out throughout the day);
- phonocardiography (prescribed for suspected cardiac murmurs);
- echocardiogram (allows you to determine the state of the muscles of the heart and its valves by means of ultrasound; the speed of blood movement in the cavities of the heart organ is also evaluated);
- coronography (a method for examining arteries);
- myocardial scintigraphy (reveals gaps with narrowing of blood vessels).
If violations of work in the heart area are not detected, then the cause of the pain must be sought in other diseases of the body, then the following are performed:
- Magnetic resonance imaging;
- CT scan.
Treatment of heart disease
What measures to take and how to cure heart disease? Such a question always confronts a patient who has heard his diagnosis. First of all, it is necessary to take seriously all the recommendations and prescriptions of the doctor. Sometimes the usual supportive traditional therapy and maintaining a normal daily routine are enough. In other cases, vascular plastic is necessary, and this is already a surgical intervention.
The best measures to prevent heart disease are the following recommendations:
- get rid of all bad habits (smoking, drinking);
- add to your daily diet more freshly squeezed juices and fruit drinks, herbal infusions and tea parties, do not forget to drink clean water in the amount of 1,5 liters;
- healthy nutrition should be balanced and moderate (in order to prevent weight gain and, if there is one, reduce it), meals should be taken in moderate portions of 4 once a day;
- it is worth limiting salt intake, and season vegetable, fish and lean meat dishes with olive and linseed oil;
- classes in the pool, as well as yoga or regular exercises in the morning should be companions of every person who cares about the health of his heart;
- after a full day physical activity, a full night's sleep is needed so that the body has time to relax and gain strength;
- Do not get involved in taking hot baths and go to saunas and baths;
- if therapeutic therapy is prescribed, it is worth strictly following the dosages and course of taking, also it is not necessary to launch colds and infectious diseases.
After establishing the cause that gave impetus to the formation of arrhythmia, a specialist prescribes a course of treatment. If the condition is caused by psychoemotional disorders or changes in the work of the autonomic system, then the symptoms of arrhythmia are eliminated by sedatives. They are often sold in pharmacies without a prescription, it is only important to follow the doctor's prescriptions or the dosage instructions. In more complex cases, in order to relieve an attack of arrhythmia, hospitalization or the intake of stronger drugs - tranquilizers and antiarrhythmic drugs is required. They are prescribed for organic lesions of the heart organ.
Treatment for Paraxismal Tachycardia... Methods of mechanical action and breathing exercises help to relieve an acute attack of this type of arrhythmia. For example, they use the method of light pressure on the eyeballs - this helps to excite the vagus nerve. The Valsalva test has the same effect, when the child needs to strain with a deep breath, with the nasal passages clamped at the same time. Obzidan, a p-blocker, is used as drug therapy for this arrhythmia. Also, treatment that helps to stop the passage of calcium into the cells of the heart muscle (myocardium) - the intake of isoptin, will be relevant. In the presence of a lack of blood circulation, along with this therapy, cardiac glycosides are taken. In any case, the doctor prescribes the dosage and duration of use according to the history.
Treatment for atrial fibrillation... Since atrial fibrillation is caused by heart and other diseases, treatment is primarily aimed at eliminating them. If the form of atrial fibrillation is accelerated, then the concomitant appointment to the main one will be the intake of cardiac glycosides. With a slow rhythm of contractions, novocaindimil, hindine or aymalin are recommended. If the treatment does not bring the desired results, then electrical defibrillation is indicated. Forecasts are often favorable.
Reception of sedatives (sedatives) is often carried out not only for therapeutic purposes, but also for prevention. They contribute to sound sleep, but do not cause drowsiness, improve the general condition by lowering excitability, nervousness.
Sedatives are often herbal tinctures or tablets with a combined composition, as well as bromides and barbiturates. Such drugs are allowed for adolescents (schoolchildren, students during exams and under high loads), they are also prescribed for those who deal with a large flow of people (service sector).
- Valerian tincture;
- Motherwort tincture;
- New Passit;
- Antares 120;
- Soothing collection.
Sedative drugs are well tolerated by the body, but you cannot prescribe them yourself, especially for pregnant women, during lactation, with diseases of the stomach and heart. Also, in case of individual intolerance to herbal preparations and the occurrence of allergies, you should stop taking tablets or tinctures of this drug group.
To reduce the frequency of contractions of the heart rhythm and relieve painful manifestations, antiarrhythmic drugs are prescribed. They have beneficial effects on myocardial muscle cells, improve their conductivity and restore metabolic processes.
The drugs in this group include:
- Heart rate;
One of the more prescribed drugs for angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmias, and hypertension is Concor, a selective beta-blocker. The purpose of the drug Concor (bisoprolol), as an antiarrhythmic agent, has effective indicators when it interacts with other drugs, mainly diuretics or ACE inhibitors.
Concor does not have independent symptomatic activity, its pharmacological effect has the following focus:
- decreased blood plasma renin activity;
- reduction in heart rate (both during exercise and at rest);
- reduction of myocardial oxygen demand.
The drug Concor is not prescribed for bradycardia or for patients with hypotension (low blood pressure). It is also cautious to take this drug with diabetes. Although Concor is a “new generation” medicine and, in general, does not do any harm in this disease, it is necessary to exercise vigilance when the patient is prone to a hypoglycemic state.
The fact is that Concor is able to enhance the action of insulin and eliminate tachycardic attacks that appear in people with a decrease in blood glucose. And if the patient focuses on this symptom, then in the case of Concor it is impossible to do this, because tachycardia will pass unnoticed for him.
Contraindications to taking Concor are also:
- age of 18 years;
- pregnancy and lactation;
- special intolerance to bisoprolol;
- weakness of the sinus node;
- bronchial asthma;
- renal and hepatic impairment;
With individual intolerance to antiarrhythmic drugs, tranquilizers are prescribed to stabilize the heart rhythm. They have a sedative effect, have a hypotensive function, reduce the frequency of contractions of the heart organ, and also demonstrate a vasodilating effect. Often, tranquilizers are prescribed for tachycardia or atrial fibrillation.
The most common drugs, groups of tranquilizers:
Any antiarrhythmic drugs and tranquilizers can be taken only as directed by a specialist. The doctor also calculates the dosage, based on the patient’s history and the individual characteristics of the disease.
If arrhythmia occurs due to organic damage to the heart organ, treatment is carried out without the use of tranquilizers or special antiarrhythmic drugs. They treat the underlying disease.
Symptoms of arrhythmia, which indicate that the cause of its occurrence are altered metabolic processes and the accumulation of cholesterol in the walls of blood vessels, can be eliminated with the help of homeopathic remedies. This preventive treatment is possible when no cardiac or other diseases are diagnosed during the examination.
Of homeopathic remedies, the most commonly prescribed are:
- Cralonin - in a dosage of 15 drops, it is drunk three times a day, with cardiological neuroses, as well as after myocardial infarction;
- Nervochel - is prescribed to reduce nervous excitability, with depressive states, neuroses. Dissolve one tablet three times a day.
- Recardio и Detonic used at elevated pressure and to normalize the pulse. These pills are popular in Europe, as a normalizer for hypertension.
Prescribe also tincture of valerian as a medicine to relieve nervous state and overexcitation. Drink valerian in 15 drops three times a day, but at bedtime, at first, it is recommended to increase the dose to 25 drops.
Folk remedies can also be used for arrhythmias and various heart diseases as a prophylaxis. So, honey is consumed by 1 dessert spoon (in the morning, on an empty stomach). It is recommended to include dried and fresh apricots, raspberries, grapes, currants in the diet. They help reduce cholesterol in the vessels and fill the tissues of the heart organ with active ions.
Alternative methods of treating diseases of the cardiovascular system
Among the popular methods of treating heart disease, they mainly focus on various herbal preparations. However, their adoption must be clearly agreed with the attending physician. The most popular recipes, herbs and spices that are recommended as a separate application or as part of a collection:
- Elecampane, ginger, cardamom, valerian root, cinnamon, hawthorn, linden, garlic, wild rose, dill, barberry, aloe juice, strawberry and clover leaves, motherwort, licorice, chicory and others.
- In the morning, it is recommended to take a spoonful of healthy mixture - lemon, raisins, walnuts and honey. All this is pre-milled to a mushy state.
To improve the condition and work of the heart, breathing exercises and special moderate physical exercises are also used, which are also prescribed by the doctor. You can prevent or cure heart disease if you pay attention to the symptoms in time, and then patiently and persistently follow all the recommendations and instructions of the doctor.