Infertility is a woman's inability to get pregnant. It affects about 5,3 million people in the Russian Federation. Infertility affects both men and women equally. In most cases, infertility is treated with medication or surgery. Improvements in fertility treatment have made it possible for many women to become pregnant. These new advanced technologies include in vitro fertilization, sperm injection and other similar procedures.
The causes of infertility. The normal process of fertilization requires interaction between the female and male reproductive systems. A sperm fertilizes an egg, usually in the fallopian tubes. Then the embryo is implanted in the uterus for further development. Infertility occurs when something is disturbed in this pattern. The problem may be in the woman, in the man, or even with both of them. The actual causes of infertility may not be detected at all, as the problem may be in the egg, sperm, or inability of the embryo to implant.
- Pelvic inflammatory disease. Sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea and chlamydia can be associated with pelvic inflammatory disease and cause severe damage to the fallopian tubes. It is worth donating blood for analysis of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
- Endometriosis affects women of reproductive age. The disease causes pelvic pain and infertility. Endometrial tissue grows outside the uterus and damages the ovaries and fallopian tubes. This disease is diagnosed during laparoscopy.
- Ecological and environmental factors. Negative environmental factors can cause problems with sperm production in men. Exposure to lead, heavy metals, and pesticides has also been associated with male infertility. Many other factors, such as excessive heat, microwave radiation, ultrasound, are controversial, as it has not been proven that they can actually cause infertility.
- Smoking tobacco, marijuana, drug use. Smoking can cause infertility in men and women. Animal experiments have shown that nicotine blocks sperm production and reduces the size of male testicles. In women, changes in the uterine mucosa are observed, which affects the movement of sperm to the egg.
Smoking marijuana leads to a violation in women of the ovulation cycle (egg release). In men, sperm count and sperm quality are reduced.
Heroin, cocaine and crack cause similar effects, increasing the risk of HIV infection associated with risky sexual behavior.
In women, exposure to alcohol can lead to serious consequences for the fetus. However, chronic alcoholism associated with impaired ovulation obviously discourages fertility. Alcohol use in men affects testosterone synthesis and sperm concentration. Alcoholism also negatively affects sexual reactions and leads to impotence, lack of erection.
- Physical activity and exercises. Of course, a healthy lifestyle should be promoted as part of normal activities. However, too much exercise can also be dangerous. In women, this can lead to a violation of ovulation, in men, to a low sperm count.
- Wrong diets associated with rapid weight loss or weight gain.
- Obesity affects infertility only when a woman's weight reaches an extreme limit.
- Weight loss with anorexia creates problems with the menstrual period and the state of the thyroid gland, thereby disrupting normal ovulation.
- Age. The likelihood of becoming pregnant with a woman decreases in the fifth decade of her life at the age of 40-50 years. In men, testosterone levels will drop with age.
Healthy couples younger than 30 years old and not using contraceptive methods of contraception have 25-30% chances of achieving pregnancy every month. Peak fertility in women occurs at the beginning of the third decade of life. A woman over the age of 35 years and especially after the age of 40 years, is likely to get pregnant about 10% every month.
Infertility Treatment Technique
Infertility is treated with traditional treatments. For example, drug treatment helps to restore normal ovulation.
For men, the most common cause of infertility is seminal fluid problems. Either sperm are produced in small quantities or not produced at all. Sperm can change or die before they reach the egg. In this case, the drug is recommended. Ares... Chickenpox is a dilatation of the plexus vein of the testicular sperm and is a factor often associated with male infertility (in 40% of cases) as it can cause significant hormonal imbalances that negatively affect spermatogenesis.
Surgical varicose veins (varicocelectomy) is a relatively simple operation that is performed quite often in the treatment of infertility. Despite the fact that urologists believe that this type of surgery strongly affects male fertility, numerous studies have shown that surgical treatment of varicocele significantly reduces the likelihood that a partner will become pregnant. There are also opinions that the results of these studies were affected by the fact that specialists in this field did not report the latest methods of urological treatment.
Some studies show that such treatments are good in combination with assisted reproductive methods, especially in vitro fertilization (IUI). Nevertheless, the global and long-term benefits of infertility remain controversial, and new research is needed to achieve a safe and unanimously accepted outcome. One thing is certain: the surgical treatment of varicocele does not give impressive results when it comes to small dilation of the veins (1 or 2 degree).
Treatments for varicocele
The following are the most effective treatments for varicocele:
- Varicocelectomy - This is a standard surgical procedure for primary varicocele. It consists of alloying and dividing dilated and curved veins. This is an effective method that requires minimal intervention from the surgeon for the patient. Recovery occurs relatively quickly (within 6 days, full recovery can be achieved in 3 weeks). This method solves about 90% of varicoceles.
- Laparoscopic treatment of varicocele - includes minimal incisions (usually less than 3 cm). Although the procedure itself is more time consuming, the patient recovers much faster compared to classical surgery. It should be noted that this method has a higher risk of complications than the traditional approach.
- Transvocal selective varicocele embolization is a non-surgical treatment for varicocele that appears to be very effective and less painful compared to other procedures. This method of treatment is most often applied to young boys.
How is the treatment? The doctor introduces a catheter into the femoral vein through a small incision and embolizes the affected veins (sperm). The procedure lasts 15-45 minutes and is performed under local anesthesia. There are studies suggesting that the likelihood of varicocele recurrence is 10%. After the procedure (if it did not help), patients are treated with the classical surgical method. This type of embolization is not yet widely used; there are cases when this procedure is contraindicated.
The most common cause of infertility in women is ovulation disorder. Other causes of female infertility include tubal blockage. This is possible when a woman has inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs or fibroids. Congenital malformations of the uterus and uterine fibroids can cause repeated miscarriages. Recommended use of herbal gathering seraphim to accelerate the onset of pregnancy.
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